An analysis by the Brookings Institution in 2017 concluded that reconstruction efforts have largely failed due to intractable political opposition to Hamas – not only from Israel, but also from Egypt, which opposes the militants’ ties to the Muslim Brotherhood.
The analysis concluded that restricted access to Gaza – as imposed by Egypt and the Israeli blockade – has restricted supplies of construction, humanitarian aid, and other equipment to the area. This sparked already simmering tensions between Hamas and its political opponents in the Palestinian Authority, who were being pressured by Egypt to take over security operations in Gaza as a means of opening access.
At the same time, the analysis found that international donors were slow to send the money they committed to rebuilding efforts in Gaza in 2014. The vast majority of unfulfilled donations, three years after the ceasefire, were made by Arab countries in the Persian Gulf. Which also opposed Hamas’s ties to the Muslim Brotherhood. The Muslim Brotherhood has rejected violence, but it has some links to extremist groups. Hamas is considered a terrorist organization by both Israel and the United States.
Collectively, the Gaza reconstruction process has been disrupted, which has resulted in the population being confined to temporary housing amid high unemployment and declining services in the areas of electricity, clean water and waste management.
Mr Ross said previous efforts to rebuild Gaza had largely failed and that any future monitoring system, likely by the UN, must be an effective round-the-clock endeavor that would halt reconstruction if Hamas were found. Storing, building, or preparing to launch missiles.
“The issue is massive reconstruction without missiles,” said Mr. Ross. “There has to be adequate oversight over this process to know that it is working the way it was intended. The moment you see violations, everything stops.”
He said that this does not necessarily mean that Hamas is completely disarmed, and that some immediate humanitarian aid must be delivered to Gaza. But Mr Ross said that the broader offer of reconstruction assistance should be made publicly to reassure donors of the consequences if Hamas resumes its missile program. He expected Hamas to agree, at least initially, to some kind of arrangement. “Right now, the needs are so deep that they’ll go along with something,” said Mr. Ross.